Definition, Causes & Treatments

woman coping with migraine symptoms

What is migraine?

Much more than a bad headache, migraine is a chronic neurological disease with significant impact on individuals and on society as a whole. It affects more than 10% of the population worldwide.2

Migraine patients generally experience symptomatic episodes 2 to 4 times monthly, during which more than half of them report serious functional impairment or require bed rest.4

graphic shows electrical storm in the brain

While the precise cause of migraine is unknown, it is believed to be the result of overstimulation or hyperexcitability in the part of the brain that controls sensory processing.5

Common symptoms of migraine include:6

  • Excruciating headaches
  • Nausea
  • Physical unsteadiness
  • Visual discomfort caused by standard lighting
  • Irritation in response to routine, everyday sounds
  • Aversion to odors that would normally seem pleasant or neutral

About one-third of patients with migraine also experience visual disturbances—called auras—before the onset of pain.5

chart showing annual economic impact of migraine

Migraine has a troubling impact on society as a whole, resulting in a loss of productivity and an enormous financial burden. The annual economic impact of migraine in the United States is estimated to be nearly $24 billion.7

Important studies

  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation and potential cortical and trigeminothalamic mechanisms in migraine.

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  • Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) for the acute treatment of migraine: evaluation of outcome data for the UK post market pilot program.

    Link to journal

A double burden: Migraine and medication side effects

Patients with migraine often miss out on essential parts of daily life. Family time, important work, and recreation activities can all be disrupted by the symptoms of migraine—and also by the side effects of medications taken to treat migraine.

While the goal of migraine treatment is to help patients get back to their normal daily lives, many of the medications that physicians prescribe to help treat migraine symptoms may not be well-tolerated. They often have their own serious side effects, such as debilitating amounts of drowsiness.

About 70% of migraine patients are not satisfied with or cannot tolerate the side effects associated with medications.3

Patients have long sought a non-drug treatment option for migraine. But there has been no clinically effective and well-tolerated treatment available until now.

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My gain

The sTMS is incredible. To go from migraine symptoms daily to being able to eliminate them almost entirely has profoundly changed the quality of my life.
— 54-year-old female
Indication: The sTMS mini™ by eNeura is indicated for the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache in adolescents (age 12 and older) and adults.

  1. Silberstein SD. Practice parameter: evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000;55(6):754-762.
  2. Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Diamond M. Migraine prevalence, disease burden, and the need for preventive therapy. Neurology. 2007;68(5):343-349.
  3. Lipton RB, Stewart WF. Acute migraine therapy: do doctors understand what patients with migraine want from therapy? Headache. 1999;39(suppl 2):S20-S26.
  4. Lipton RB, Bigal ME. The epidemiology of migraine. Am J Med. 2005;118(suppl 1):3S-10S.
  5. Goadsby PJ, Lipton RB, Ferrari MD. Migraine – current understanding and treatment. N Eng J Med. 2002;346(4):257-270.
  6. Goadsby PJ. Pathophysiology of migraine. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2012;15(suppl 1):15S-22S.
  7. Hazard E, Munakata J, Bigal ME, Rupnow MF, Lipton RB. The burden of migraine in the United States: current and emerging perspectives on disease management and economic analysis. Value Health. 2009;12(1):55-64.
  8. All-Party Parliamentary Group on Primary Headache Disorders. Headache Disorders – not respected, not resourced. London, UK: House of Commons; 2010.